Since the 1970s, the global energy issues have become increasingly prominent. Building, as an energy-hungry industry, has been paid close attention to by the entire world. Actually, energy conservation in building has become an urgent affair for countries all over the world. Statistics show that energy consumption in building in many developed countries has accounted for more than 30% of total energy consumption. In China, the ratio has achieved 27.6%, which is an important part of new energy consumption.
At present, China's completed construction area each year is about 2 billion square meters, including approximately 400 million square meters' public buildings. Public buildings have many commonalities in construction standards, functions, and design of heating and air-conditioning systems. They often consume a lot of energy and cause large carbon emissions. In the annual energy consumption of public buildings, 50-60% of the energy is consumed for heating and air-conditioning, about 20-30% is consumed for lighting. About 20-50% of the energy is consumed by heat transfer (about 20% in the hot-summer-warm-winter areas, 35% in the hot-summer-cold-winter areas, 40% in cold areas, 50% in severe cold areas). The Chinese government has stated its commitment to achieve a 40-45% reduction in carbon emissions per unit of GDP by 2020 compared to 2005.
To achieve this goal, building industry must be optimized both in design and operation, and Building technology is the essential key. Since there is great shortage of top talents in this area, it is necessary to cultivate engineering talents engaging in research of comprehensive and intelligent methods for constructing green, low-carbon, and ecological buildings.
Referring to the training model of French engineering education, we are going to cultivate international high-level, applied and compound talents capable of engineering technique and project management in intelligent buildings. They should possess a solid theoretical basis on architectural design, control theory, computer application technology, information and communication technology, automatic control technology for building facilities and other wide-ranging areas. They are also expected to have strong practical abilities, management skills, international perspective and spirit of innovation. With these capacities, they could engage in the overall planning, design management, system integration, application research as well as development work, etc. for large-scale and mixed-use building-intellectualizing projects in large international enterprises, design institutes, and relevant governmental departments.
Engineers in building research institutes. They should take charge of planning and implementation of research and development programs on building intellectualizing.
Engineers in large real estate developing companies and property operating companies. They should develop projects as the overall leader, plotter and technical supervisor. They are expected to manage the programs as the operating manager of the Building project.
Engineers in large international engineering consulting firms and design institutes. They should design and command building-intellectualizing projects. For those who work as professional management staffs in the government planning department and building department, they should plan, design, command construction and do post-management for smart city and Building programs.
Tianjin University occupied in a leading position of cultivating talents in architecture domestically. In 2006, China began to promote green buildings. Since then, School of Architecture has been considering the interdisciplinary issue involving intelligent technology and traditional architecture. In the past few years particularly, the Internet, the Internet of Things as well as big data have revolutionized the development of many traditional industries. It is also an inevitable trend for traditional construction industry to integrate with these technologies. The platform for this integration is specifically the Building.
Therefore, after discussing with some domestic industry leaders such as China State Construction Engineering Corporation (CSCEC) and China Architecture Design & Research Group (CAG), Tianjin University decided to establish Business Council of Intelligent Buildings. Its main supporting institution is the School of Architecture; other cooperators are College of Civil Engineering, College of City and Environmental Science, College of Automation, as well as College of Computer and Information. They get together to cultivate top talents for Building. The teaching mission is to enable students to set up framework of essential knowledge such as computer, control and communications that are needed in building-intellectualizing while satisfying the demand in traditional architecture. The aim is to build up a talent pool for Building.
The School of Architecture of Tianjin University comprises the Department of Architecture, Department of Urban and Rural Planning, Department of Landscape Architecture, Department of Environmental Art, as well as the Research Institute of Architectural History & Theory and Research Institute of Building Science & Technology. The school has 153 staffs at work. There are 130 teachers, 40 of them are professors (researchers), 59 are associate professors and 1 of them is an academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, one is a Distinguished Teacher of China's National Higher Education, and four are long-term foreign professors. We have a well-experienced faculty group with high professional qualifications. A large number of young and middle-age teachers with doctorate or experience of studying abroad are teaching and researching diligently. They have undertaken a number of national and provincial educational reform, scientific research and production practice projects in recent years. They have achieved outstanding results and won good academic reputation in the field of architecture both at home and abroad.
As a major department responsible for the education of Building, the Research Institute of Building Science & Technology has 13 teachers, including three professors, five associate professors, and five lecturers (not including teachers who are cross appointed). The institute possesses the only state-level key discipline and specialty for "Building Science & Technology". It also has a provincial key laboratory of "Architectural Physical Environment & Eco-technology", which represents China's advanced research level in this field and has become important platforms for international communication. About ten professors and 70 doctoral students (masters) compose the institute's strong scientific research and design team. The team has completed dozens of major national research programs. Their capacity of scientific research and design is in the leading position in China. Meanwhile, the institute has also set up a mentor group together with the College of Civil Engineering, College of Environmental Science, College of Computer Science, College of Precision Instrument and College of Automation to co-cultivate postgraduates majoring in Building.
Tianjin University will pay for the graduates' cultivation. The board will pay for their expense during the internship. Students are expected to complete the learning of the architecture courses, the civil engineering courses, the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) courses, and the computer, telecommunication, and automation multiple courses. Corresponding colleges should provide learning and practice platforms correlated with each course. Besides, the School of Architecture would also provide students with an integrated practice platform for Building.
The Professional Development Committee of Building consists of all disciplinary representatives, grade heads and head of Building major, and regularly convenes meetings. Students shall select student representatives at the beginning of each academic year for regular organization of meetings. The Development Committee shall study and formulate the general courses and teaching plan for electronic information major.